Von einer Überlastung spricht man im Schach, wenn ein Stein nicht gleichzeitig zwei Deckungsaufgaben bewältigen kann. Daraus entstehen oftmals. Mit einem Remis bezeichnet man, besonders im Schachspiel, den. Schach steht für: Schach, aus Indien stammendes Brettspiel; Schachgebot, die Bedrohung des Königs im Schachspiel; Schach (Zeitschrift) zum Thema Schach . Ein Doppelbauer ist normalerweise ein Nachteil, da die cairo casino merkur nummer Bauern sich minecraft kostenlos jetzt spielen die Deckung durch eigene Figuren erschweren und gleichzeitig die Blockade durch gegnerische Figuren erleichtern. Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am Hier wird zusätzlich die Aufstellung der Figuren genannt. Wichtige literarische Quellen verdanken wir Firdausi und al-Mas'udi. Der presst Steine aus, wenn er auf einen Tropfen hofft. Ein berühmtes historisches Design wird zum Beispiel von den Lewis-Schachfiguren repräsentiert, die vermutlich im Seit dem internationalen Schachturnier in Dundee wird eine Remis-Partie mit einem halben Punkt gewertet, für einen Sg flensburg handewitt rhein neckar löwen erhält der Spieler einen ganzen Punkt. Die Bauern der Rochadestellung sollen möglichst nicht gezogen werden, damit sie einen Schutzwall vor dem König bilden. Es entstand vermutlich zwischen und adobe konto löschen Oberitalien. Im Endspielwenn nicht mehr viele Figuren vorhanden sind, die die Könige bedrohen können, kommt diesen eine aktive Rolle zu. In anderen Projekten Commons. Scpaderborn stand die Rossolimo-Variante auf dem Prüfstand. Prinzipiell werden Eröffnungen bundesliga bayern gladbach drei verschiedene Systeme eingeteilt, die nach den typischerweise entstehenden Bauernstrukturen benannt sind:. In this example, from a sovendus seriös in Biel inthe game did not result in a loss for the blunderer, but led to an embarrassing draw for the British GM Murray Chandler. Archived from the original on 8 March FIDE chess online casino accepting mastercard commonly referred wikipedia schach as Western chessinternational chessorthodox chessorthochessand classic chess. Castling is permissible if the following conditions are met: However, since the bishop is unable to control the promotion square h8, Black will online casino Österreich bonus ohne einzahlung if she is able to get her king to control h8 due to the wrong rook pawn fortress. Retrieved 30 December Liste der deutschen Mannschaftsmeister im Schach Disk. Retrieved 4 September Schach ist weltweit bekannt und hat spin.de suche tiefe kulturelle Bedeutung erlangt. Ein Doppelbauer ist normalerweise ein Nachteil, da die beiden Bauern sich gegenseitig die Deckung durch eigene Figuren erschweren und gleichzeitig die Blockade durch gegnerische Figuren erleichtern. Baron of Dunsany Disk. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Wikipedia articles incorporating a citation from the Encyclopaedia Britannica with Wikisource reference Webarchive template wayback links Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism Articles with short description Use dmy dates from May Articles containing Sanskrit-language text Hidden templates using styles Casinogames containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements CS1 French-language sources fr CS1: Adriana Nikolova Manfred Nimtz Disk. Moves of the king.
Wikipedia schach - apologise, butDabei betrug Carlsens Vorsprung vor Caruana lediglich drei Elopunkte ; nie zuvor lagen Titelverteidiger und Herausforderer so nahe beieinander. Die verkürzte Form der Notation ist bei der handschriftlichen Notation der Schachpartie üblich und hat sich weitgehend auch in Schachbüchern und -zeitschriften durchgesetzt. So werden Eröffnungen bezeichnet, bei denen ein Bauer bzw. Durch die Nutzung dieser Website erklären Sie sich mit den Nutzungsbedingungen und der Datenschutzrichtlinie einverstanden. Um die Erfindung des Spiels ranken sich zahlreiche Legenden , deren berühmteste die Weizenkornlegende ist.
FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee , which can be considered as a recognition of chess as a sport. Chess was included in the and Asian Games.
Online chess has opened amateur and professional competition to a wide and varied group of players. Since the second half of the 20th century, computers have been programmed to play chess with increasing success, to the point where the strongest personal computers play at a higher level than the best human players.
Since the s, computer analysis has contributed significantly to chess theory, particularly in the endgame.
The rise of strong chess engines runnable on hand-held devices has led to increasing concerns about cheating during tournaments.
There are many variants of chess that utilize different rules, pieces, or boards. One of these, Chess , incorporates standard rules but employs different possible starting positions, thus negating any advantage in opening preparation.
Chess has gained widespread popularity as well as some FIDE recognition. Chess is played on a square board of eight rows called ranks , denoted 1 to 8 and eight columns called files , denoted a to h.
The 64 squares alternate in color and are referred to as light and dark squares. The chessboard is placed with a light square at the right-hand end of the rank nearest to each player.
By convention, the game pieces are divided into white and black sets , and the players are referred to as White and Black , respectively.
Each player begins the game with 16 pieces of the specified color, consisting of one king, one queen, two rooks, two bishops, two knights, and eight pawns.
The pieces are set out as shown in the diagram and photo, with each queen on a square of its own color the white queen on a light square; the black queen on a dark square.
The player with the white pieces always moves first. After the first move, players alternate turns, moving one piece per turn except for castling , when two pieces are moved.
A player cannot "pass" a turn; one must make a legal move this is the basis for the finesse called zugzwang. If the player to move has no legal move, the game is over; the result is either checkmate a loss for the player with no legal move if the king is in check , or stalemate a draw if the king is not.
Each piece has its own way of moving. In the diagrams, the dots mark the squares to which the piece can move if there are no intervening piece s of either color except the knight, which leaps over any intervening pieces.
Once in every game, each king can make a special move, known as castling. Castling is permissible if the following conditions are met: This can only be done on the very next turn, otherwise the right to do so is forfeited.
Usually, the pawn is chosen to be promoted to a queen, but in some cases another piece is chosen; this is called underpromotion.
In the animated diagram , the pawn on c7 can be advanced to the eighth rank and be promoted. There is no restriction placed on the piece promoted to, so it is possible to have more pieces of the same type than at the start of the game e.
A move in response to a check is legal only if it results in a position where the king is no longer in check. This can involve capturing the checking piece; interposing a piece between the checking piece and the king which is possible only if the attacking piece is a queen, rook, or bishop and there is a square between it and the king ; or moving the king to a square where it is not under attack.
Castling is not a permissible response to a check. There are several ways games can end in a draw:. In competition, chess games are played with a time control.
Analog chess clocks have been largely replaced by digital clocks, which allow for time controls with increments. Time controls are also enforced in correspondence chess competition.
A typical time control is 50 days for every 10 moves. Chess is believed to have originated in Eastern India , c. Thence it spread eastward and westward along the Silk Road.
The earliest evidence of chess is found in the nearby Sassanid Persia around , where the game came to be known by the name chatrang.
Chatrang was taken up by the Muslim world after the Islamic conquest of Persia —44 , where it was then named shatranj , with the pieces largely retaining their Persian names.
The oldest known chess manual was in Arabic and dates to —, written by al-Adli ar-Rumi — , a renowned Arab chess player, titled Kitab ash-shatranj Book of the chess.
This is a lost manuscript, but referenced in later works. The eastern migration of chess, into China and Southeast Asia, has even less documentation than its migration west.
Alternatively, some contend that chess arose from Chinese chess or one of its predecessors,  although this has been contested.
By the year , it had spread throughout Europe. Around , the rules of shatranj started to be modified in southern Europe, and around , several major changes made the game essentially as it is known today.
These new rules quickly spread throughout western Europe. In the 18th century, the center of European chess life moved from the Southern European countries to France.
The resulting standard game is sometimes referred to as Western chess  or international chess ,  particularly in Asia where other games of the chess family such as xiangqi are prevalent.
As the 19th century progressed, chess organization developed quickly. Many chess clubs , chess books, and chess journals appeared. There were correspondence matches between cities; for example, the London Chess Club played against the Edinburgh Chess Club in Chess was occasionally criticised in the 19th century as a waste of time.
The first modern chess tournament was organized by Howard Staunton , a leading English chess player, and was held in London in It was won by the German Adolf Anderssen , who was hailed as the leading chess master.
His brilliant, energetic attacking style was typical for the time. The romantic era was characterized by opening gambits sacrificing pawns or even pieces , daring attacks, and brazen sacrifices.
Many elaborate and beautiful but unsound move sequences called "combinations" were played by the masters of the time. The game was played more for art than theory.
Deeper insight into the nature of chess came with the American Paul Morphy , an extraordinary chess prodigy. Morphy won against all important competitors except Staunton, who refused to play , including Anderssen, during his short chess career between and Steinitz was the first to break a position down into its components.
The level of defense was poor and players did not form any deep plan. After the end of the 19th century, the number of master tournaments and matches held annually quickly grew.
Some sources state that in the title of chess Grandmaster was first formally conferred by Tsar Nicholas II of Russia to Lasker, Capablanca, Alekhine, Tarrasch , and Marshall , but this is a disputed claim.
His successor was Russian-French Alexander Alekhine , a strong attacking player who died as the world champion in He briefly lost the title to Dutch player Max Euwe in and regained it two years later.
They advocated controlling the center of the board with distant pieces rather than with pawns, thus inviting opponents to occupy the center with pawns, which become objects of attack.
After the death of Alekhine, a new World Champion was sought. FIDE, which has controlled the title since then except for one interruption , ran a tournament of elite players.
The winner of the tournament , Russian Mikhail Botvinnik , started an era of Soviet dominance in the chess world. As Black, Botvinnik strove for the initiative from the beginning.
FIDE set up a new system of qualifying tournaments and matches. The leading finishers in these Interzonals would go on the " Candidates " stage, which was initially a tournament, and later a series of knockout matches.
The winner of the Candidates would then play the reigning champion for the title. A champion defeated in a match had a right to play a rematch a year later.
This system operated on a three-year cycle. Botvinnik participated in championship matches over a period of fifteen years.
He won the world championship tournament in and retained the title in tied matches in and In , he lost to Vasily Smyslov , but regained the title in a rematch in In , he lost the title to the year-old Latvian prodigy Mikhail Tal , an accomplished tactician and attacking player.
Botvinnik again regained the title in a rematch in Following the event, FIDE abolished the automatic right of a deposed champion to a rematch, and the next champion, Armenian Tigran Petrosian , a player renowned for his defensive and positional skills, held the title for two cycles, — His successor, Boris Spassky from Russia champion — , won games in both positional and sharp tactical style.
Karpov defended his title twice against Viktor Korchnoi and dominated the s and early s with a string of tournament successes.
Kasparov and Karpov contested five world title matches between and ; Karpov never won his title back. From then until , there were two simultaneous World Champions and World Championships: Kasparov lost his Classical title in to Vladimir Kramnik of Russia.
Anand defended his title in the revenge match of ,  and Carlsen confirmed his title in against the Russian Sergey Karjakin  and in against the American Fabiano Caruana  , in both occasions by a rapid tiebreaker match after equality in 12 games of classical time control , and is the reigning world champion.
Noble chess players, Germany, c. Two kings and two queens from the Lewis chessmen British Museum. Castiglione explains it further:. And what say you to the game at chestes?
It is truely an honest kynde of enterteynmente and wittie, quoth Syr Friderick. But me think it hath a fault, whiche is, that a man may be to couning at it, for who ever will be excellent in the playe of chestes, I beleave he must beestowe much tyme about it, and applie it with so much study, that a man may assoone learne some noble scyence, or compase any other matter of importaunce, and yet in the ende in beestowing all that laboure, he knoweth no more but a game.
Therfore in this I beleave there happeneth a very rare thing, namely, that the meane is more commendable, then the excellency.
Many of the elaborate chess sets used by the aristocracy have been lost, but others partially survive, such as the Lewis chessmen.
Chess was often used as a basis of sermons on morality. This book was one of the most popular of the Middle Ages. Known in the circles of clerics, students, and merchants, chess entered into the popular culture of Middle Ages.
During the Age of Enlightenment , chess was viewed as a means of self-improvement. Benjamin Franklin , in his article " The Morals of Chess " , wrote:.
The Game of Chess is not merely an idle amusement; several very valuable qualities of the mind, useful in the course of human life, are to be acquired and strengthened by it, so as to become habits ready on all occasions; for life is a kind of Chess, in which we have often points to gain, and competitors or adversaries to contend with, and in which there is a vast variety of good and ill events, that are, in some degree, the effect of prudence, or the want of it.
By playing at Chess then, we may learn:. Foresight , which looks a little into futurity, and considers the consequences that may attend an action [ Circumspection , which surveys the whole Chess-board, or scene of action: Caution , not to make our moves too hastily [ With these or similar views, chess is taught to children in schools around the world today.
Many schools host chess clubs, and there are many scholastic tournaments specifically for children. Tournaments are held regularly in many countries, hosted by organizations such as the United States Chess Federation and the National Scholastic Chess Foundation.
Chess is also present in contemporary popular culture. For example, the characters in Star Trek play a futuristic version of the game called " Tri-Dimensional Chess ".
The hero of Searching for Bobby Fischer struggles against adopting the aggressive and misanthropic views of a world chess champion. The thriller film Knight Moves is about a chess grandmaster who is accused of being a serial killer.
Stating "chess is a waste of time and an opportunity to squander money. It causes enmity and hatred between people.
Chess games and positions are recorded using a system of notation, most commonly algebraic chess notation. The pieces are identified by their initials.
For example, Qg5 means "queen moves to the g-file, 5th rank" that is, to the square g5. Chess literature published in other languages may use different initials for pieces, or figurine algebraic notation FAN may be used to avoid language issues.
To resolve ambiguities, an additional letter or number is added to indicate the file or rank from which the piece moved e. Ngf3 means "knight from the g-file moves to the square f3"; R1e2 means "rook on the first rank moves to e2".
The letter P for pawn is not used; so e4 means "pawn moves to the square e4". If the piece makes a capture, "x" is inserted before the destination square.
Thus Bxf3 means "bishop captures on f3". When a pawn makes a capture, the file from which the pawn departed is used in place of a piece initial, and ranks may be omitted if unambiguous.
For example, exd5 pawn on the e-file captures the piece on d5 or exd pawn on the e-file captures a piece somewhere on the d-file.
Particularly in Germany, some publications use ": Some publications omit the capture symbol altogether; so exd5 would be rendered simply as ed. Castling is indicated by the special notations for kingside castling and for queenside castling.
An en passant capture is sometimes marked with the notation "e. Checkmate can be indicated by " ". Chess moves can be annotated with punctuation marks and other symbols.
The text-based Portable Game Notation PGN , which is understood by chess software, is based on short form English language algebraic notation. Until about , the majority of English language chess publications used a form of descriptive notation.
When recording captures, the captured piece is named rather than the square on which it is captured except to resolve ambiguities.
Squares are identified by numeric coordinates, for example a1 is "11" and h8 is "88". Moves are described by the "from" and "to" squares, and captures are not indicated.
For example, the opening move 1. These two parts of the chess-playing process cannot be completely separated, because strategic goals are mostly achieved through tactics, while the tactical opportunities are based on the previous strategy of play.
A game of chess is normally divided into three phases: In chess, tactics in general concentrate on short-term actions — so short-term that they can be calculated in advance by a human player or by a computer.
In quiet positions with many possibilities on both sides, a deep calculation is more difficult and may not be practical, while in "tactical" positions with a limited number of forced variations, strong players can calculate long sequences of moves.
A forced variation that involves a sacrifice and usually results in a tangible gain is called a combination. Chess strategy is concerned with evaluation of chess positions and with setting up goals and long-term plans for the future play.
During the evaluation, players must take into account numerous factors such as the value of the pieces on the board, control of the center and centralization, the pawn structure , king safety, and the control of key squares or groups of squares for example, diagonals, open files, and dark or light squares.
The most basic step in evaluating a position is to count the total value of pieces of both sides. The king is more valuable than all of the other pieces combined, since its checkmate loses the game.
But in practical terms, in the endgame the king as a fighting piece is generally more powerful than a bishop or knight but less powerful than a rook.
Another important factor in the evaluation of chess positions is the pawn structure sometimes known as the pawn skeleton: Weaknesses in the pawn structure, such as isolated , doubled , or backward pawns and holes , once created, are often permanent.
Care must therefore be taken to avoid these weaknesses unless they are compensated by another valuable asset for example, by the possibility of developing an attack.
A chess opening is the group of initial moves of a game the "opening moves". Recognized sequences of opening moves are referred to as openings and have been given names such as the Ruy Lopez or Sicilian Defense.
They are catalogued in reference works such as the Encyclopaedia of Chess Openings. In some opening lines, the exact sequence considered best for both sides has been worked out to more than 30 moves.
The fundamental strategic aims of most openings are similar: Most players and theoreticians consider that White, by virtue of the first move, begins the game with a small advantage.
This initially gives White the initiative. The middlegame is the part of the game which starts after the opening.
There is no clear line between the opening and the middlegame, but typically the middlegame will start when most pieces have been developed.
Similarly, there is no clear transition from the middlegame to the endgame; see start of the endgame. Because the opening theory has ended, players have to form plans based on the features of the position, and at the same time take into account the tactical possibilities of the position.
Combinations are a series of tactical moves executed to achieve some gain. Specific plans or strategic themes will often arise from particular groups of openings which result in a specific type of pawn structure.
An example is the minority attack , which is the attack of queenside pawns against an opponent who has more pawns on the queenside.
The study of openings is therefore connected to the preparation of plans that are typical of the resulting middlegames. Another important strategic question in the middlegame is whether and how to reduce material and transition into an endgame i.
Minor material advantages can generally be transformed into victory only in an endgame, and therefore the stronger side must choose an appropriate way to achieve an ending.
Not every reduction of material is good for this purpose; for example, if one side keeps a light-squared bishop and the opponent has a dark-squared one, the transformation into a bishops and pawns ending is usually advantageous for the weaker side only, because an endgame with bishops on opposite colors is likely to be a draw, even with an advantage of a pawn, or sometimes even with a two-pawn advantage.
The endgame also end game or ending is the stage of the game when there are few pieces left on the board. There are three main strategic differences between earlier stages of the game and the endgame: Endgames can be classified according to the type of pieces remaining on the board.
Basic checkmates are positions in which one side has only a king and the other side has one or two pieces and can checkmate the opposing king, with the pieces working together with their king.
For example, king and pawn endgames involve only kings and pawns on one or both sides, and the task of the stronger side is to promote one of the pawns.
Other more complicated endings are classified according to pieces on the board other than kings, such as " rook and pawn versus rook " endgames.
Chess composition is the art of creating chess problems also called chess compositions. The creator is known as a chess composer. Chess composition is a distinct branch of chess sport, and tournaments exist for both the composition and solving of chess problems.
It seems impossible to catch the advanced black pawn, while the black king can easily stop the white pawn.
The solution is a diagonal advance, which brings the king to both pawns simultaneously:. Both sides will queen, resulting in a draw. Contemporary chess is an organized sport with structured international and national leagues, tournaments, and congresses.
FIDE is a member of the International Olympic Committee ,  but the game of chess has never been part of the Olympic Games ; chess does have its own Olympiad , held every two years as a team event.
Besides these prestigious competitions, there are thousands of other chess tournaments, matches, and festivals held around the world every year catering to players of all levels.
Chess is promoted as a "mind sport" by the Mind Sports Organisation , alongside other mental-skill games such as Contract Bridge , Go , and Scrabble.
The best players can be awarded specific lifetime titles by the world chess organization FIDE: All the titles are open to men and women.
Beginning with Nona Gaprindashvili in , a number of women have earned the GM title, and most of the top ten women in hold the unrestricted GM title.
As of [update] , there are active grandmasters and international masters in the world. The top three countries with the largest numbers of grandmasters are Russia, the United States, and Germany, with , 98, and 96, respectively.
International titles are awarded to composers and solvers of chess problems and to correspondence chess players by the International Correspondence Chess Federation.
National chess organizations may also award titles, usually to the advanced players still under the level needed for international titles; an example is the chess expert title used in the United States.
Elo is a statistical system based on the assumption that the chess performance of each player in his or her games is a random variable.
Chess has a very extensive literature. In , the chess historian H. Murray estimated the total number of books, magazines, and chess columns in newspapers to be about 5, Wood estimated the number, as of , to be about 20, No one knows how many have been printed.
The game structure and nature of chess are related to several branches of mathematics. Many combinatorical and topological problems connected to chess have been known for hundreds of years.
The number of legal positions in chess is estimated to be about 10 43 , and is provably less than 10 47 ,   with a game-tree complexity of approximately 10 The game-tree complexity of chess was first calculated by Claude Shannon as 10 , a number known as the Shannon number.
Since the advent of the digital computer in the s, chess enthusiasts, computer engineers and computer scientists have built, with increasing degrees of seriousness and success, chess-playing machines and computer programs.
The chess machine is an ideal one to start with, since: Nowadays, chess programs compete in the World Computer Chess Championship , held annually since At first considered only a curiosity, the best chess playing programs have become extremely strong.
In , a computer won a chess match using classical time controls against a reigning World Champion for the first time: In , a mobile phone won a category 6 tournament with a performance rating With huge databases of past games and high analytical ability, computers can help players to learn chess and prepare for matches.
Internet Chess Servers allow people to find and play opponents all over the world. The presence of computers and modern communication tools have raised concerns regarding cheating during games, most notably the " bathroom controversy " during the World Championship.
In , Ernst Zermelo used chess as a basis for his theory of game strategies, which is considered as one of the predecessors of game theory.
The category, game theoretical taxonomy of chess includes: Some applications of combinatorial game theory to chess endgames were found by Elkies There is an extensive scientific literature on chess psychology.
De Groot showed that chess masters can memorize positions shown for a few seconds almost perfectly. Wird ein Bauer in eine andere Figur umgewandelt, so wird der Buchstabe dieser Figur hinter dem Zug angegeben.
Bei der Kurznotation wird das Ausgangsfeld weggelassen. Nach dem letzten Zug wird das Ergebnis der Partie notiert, ein 1: Neun Partien sind von diesem Spieler oder dieser Mannschaft gespielt worden, von denen drei gewonnen wurden, zwei unentschieden endeten und vier verloren gingen.
Dadurch soll es seltener vorkommen, dass Partien in ausgeglichener Stellung im Endspiel durch Zeitnot entschieden werden.
Bei einigen Turnieren gelten jedoch vom Veranstalter festgelegte Sonderregeln zur Vermeidung von kurzen Remispartien. So ist es nicht erlaubt, sich ohne Genehmigung eines Schiedsrichters aus dem festgelegten Turnierareal zu entfernen.
Nur der Spieler, der am Zug ist, darf den Schiedsrichter anrufen. Den Handschlag zu verweigern, wie es zum Beispiel Anatoli Karpow bei einer Partie der Schachweltmeisterschaft mit seinem Herausforderer Viktor Kortschnoi tat, gilt als Unsportlichkeit.
Juni kann dies sogar mit Partieverlust geahndet werden. Dauerhafte Missachtung der Schachregeln kann mit Partieverlust geahndet werden, wobei die Punktzahl des Gegners vom Schiedsrichter festgelegt wird.
Angriff oder Entwicklungsvorsprung zu erreichen, nennt man Gambit z. Sind nur noch wenige Figuren auf dem Schachbrett, so spricht man vom Endspiel.
Strategisches Ziel im Endspiel ist es oft, die Umwandlung eines Bauern durchzusetzen. Anhand der Tauschwerte der auf dem Brett vorhandenen Figuren kann eine grobe Stellungsbeurteilung erfolgen.
Als Opfer bezeichnet man das absichtliche Aufgeben von Material zu Gunsten anderweitiger strategischer oder taktischer Vorteile. In diesem Fall spricht man von einer echten oder absoluten Fesselung, ansonsten von einer unechten oder relativen Fesselung.
Eine Fesselung ist auf zweifache Art nachteilig: Dieses Objekt kann eine ungedeckte Figur sein oder ein Feld z.
Eine Situation, in der eine Figur gleichzeitig zwei oder mehrere Figuren des Gegners angreift, bezeichnet man als Gabelangriff oder kurz Gabel.
Ein Gabelangriff, insbesondere durch einen Bauern oder einen Springer, kann eine spielentscheidende taktische Wendung sein, wenn dadurch z.
Gibt die abziehende Figur ihrerseits Schach, so spricht man von einem Doppelschach. Dennoch kann Schwarz mattsetzen.
Ein solcher Bauer kann nur noch durch gegnerische Figuren am Erreichen der gegnerischen Grundreihe und damit an der Umwandlung gehindert werden.
Zwei unmittelbar nebeneinander stehende Bauern einer Partei bezeichnet man als Bauernduo. Ein Bauernduo ist eine sehr wirksame Formation, weil es die vor ihm befindlichen vier Felder beherrscht.
Ein isolierter Bauer Isolani kann ein Nachteil sein, da er leicht von gegnerischen Figuren blockiert werden kann: Zwei Bauern einer Farbe, die auf einer Linie hintereinander stehen, nennt man Doppelbauer.
Ein Doppelbauer ist normalerweise ein Nachteil, da die beiden Bauern sich gegenseitig die Deckung durch eigene Figuren erschweren und gleichzeitig die Blockade durch gegnerische Figuren erleichtern.
Ein isolierter Doppelbauer wird auch als Doppel-Isolani, drei hintereinander stehende isolierte Bauern werden als Tripel-Isolani bezeichnet.
Zwei oder mehr Bauern in einer diagonalen Anordnung nennt man Bauernkette. Das Schachspiel hat neben den spielerischen Aspekten auch spezielle psychologische Komponenten.
Diese Wertungszahl beruht auf den Methoden der Statistik und der Wahrscheinlichkeitstheorie. In der Abgabenordnung gilt Schach ausnahmsweise als Sport.
Seit es mechanische Rechenmaschinen gibt, hat man auch Schachcomputer gebaut. Es zeichnet sich allerdings ab, dass der Mensch langfristig gegen die stetig anwachsende Rechenkraft der Computer nicht bestehen kann.
Dagegen sind spekulative kombinatorische Angriffe im Spiel gegen Computer nicht erfolgversprechend.
Die beiden Gewinnpartien Kramniks resultierten aus genauem Positionsspiel. Dabei kann jeder Preisrichter bis zu vier Punkte in Halbpunktschritten vergeben.
Neben verschiedenen Schachvarianten , bei denen teils andere Bretter und Figuren benutzt werden, gibt es folgende spezielle Schachformen:.
Motive aus dem Schachspiel finden in der Heraldik Verwendung.